Usage Policies and Disclaimers for Website, Data and Services Provided from DDBJ

DDBJ Center prescribes its website policies in accordance with the policies of its parent organization, the Research Organization of Information and Systems (ROIS) (ROIS).
In principle, website, data and services provided from DDBJ center are available with describing credits (license and copyright) under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC-BY 4.0). Please note disclaimers.

Before using data and services provided from DDBJ Center, please understand all of followings.
Since most of all communications regarding services will be sent by email, please configure your email client to allow communications from DDBJ email addresses and avoid being categorized as "junk mail".

Privacy policy

DDBJ manages personal information in accordance with the policies of the Research Organization of Information and Systems (ROIS).
Use of personal information for data submission or using services shall be limited to the scope of the respective objectives.

Use of personal information of data submitters

  • DDBJ uses data submitters’ personal information to send queries regarding the submitted data and other communications.
  • Information may also be used to confirm affiliated organizations and contact addresses of submitters.
  • Questions from users regarding published data may also be forwarded to the submitter. Depending on the type of question, when the submitter is not respond to the forwarded question, we may let the questioned user know contact information of the submitter.

Submission of research data from human subjects

The amended Act on the Protection of Personal Information and ethical guidelines have been fully put into effect on May 30, 2017. This page has been revised accordingly.

Before submitting your data

For submitting data from human subjects (human data) to the databases of DDBJ center, it is submitter's responsibility to ensure that the dignity and right of human subject are protected in accordance with all applicable laws, ordinances, guidelines and policies of submitter's institution. In principle, make sure to remove any direct personal identifiers of human subjects from your data to be submitted.

When you are submitting human data from samples except widely utilized and generally available samples of academically established value (*1), make sure the followings.

  • The research plan describing experimental methods and human subjects has been approved by the institutional review board and by the head of institution who oversees the research.
  • The research plan and the informed consent documents describe that data from human subjects are deposited to databases and are shared among domestic and overseas researchers.

*1 HeLa whole genome sequence data should be submitted to NCBI dbGaP.

Controlled-access and databases

Before submitting human data, please consider whether controlled-access for the data is required or not (i.e. unrestricted access) on the basis of informed consents obtained from human subjects.

Controlled-access database
Submit your data to the controlled-access database "Japanese Genotype-phenotype Archive (JGA)".
Before submitting your data to JGA, you need an approval for data submission from National Bioscience Database Center (NBDC) of Japan Science and Technology Agency.
Unrestricted-access database
Submit your data to unrestricted-access databases DDBJ Sequence Read Archive (DRA) or DDBJ.
To submit human data corresponding to personal identification code (*2), you need an approval for data submission from NBDC. In principle, the two points of "Before submitting your data" " must be fulfilled, and the informed consent documents must explain that the human data are deposited to database and are shared publicly.

*2 Personal identification code is defined in the guideline (Japanese only) of the Personal Information Protection Commission.

Related information



Licensed under CC-BY 4.0.

Data and services

If not specified, there is no restriction on the use of data and services provided by DDBJ Center, and you can freely modify and redistribute the data.

database FTP getentry ARSA BLAST
16SrRNA × ×
NCBI Refseq × ×
UniProt ×
ArrayExpress × × ×
HINV × × ×



The copyrights of the contents published on the websites are the properties of the authors when the authors are indicated on the sites. If not indicated, the copyright is the property of DDBJ Center.

Data and services

When you kindly describe about using our data and services on academic papers etc., in general, please use the latest article for DDBJ on Nucleic Acids Res. Database issue as a reference.

However, please note the following points.

In case of citation for each sequence record
In general, it is enough to describe accession number (and its version, if necessary) in your publication.
If you discuss about the data in detail, please use primary citation for the data as a reference.
In case of citation for each service provided at DDBJ Center
In general, please use original article for each service as a reference.
DDBJ data set is a collaborative work of tens of thousands of authors world wide

DDBJ data set is an accumulation of DNA records submitted to either DDBJ, GenBank and EMBL-Bank as a world wide collaborative effort called INSDC (International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration).

Although DDBJ does not impose any control over the use of any part of the accumulated records, there have not been any copyright transfer from authors of the records upon submission. This is the reason why we, DDBJ, avoid making any definite statement that anybody may freely copy/modify/redistribute any part of the data set.

Since 2002, we ask all submitting authors to read the following policy, according to the advice from International Advisory Committee.

"The INSD will not attach statements to records that restrict access to the data, limit the use of information in these records, or prohibit certain types of publications based on these records. Specifically, no use restrictions or licensing requirements will be included in any sequence data records, and no restrictions or licensing fees will be placed on the redistribution or use of the database by any party."

We believe that by doing this we obtain, in effect, a permission equivalent to a waiver of copyright from authors. In fact, no author of the DDBJ records have claimed any restriction about the reuse of any part of the data set by the third parties until know.

Hence, DDBJ data set is a quasi-public domain data, which is made by the collaboration of the many and which can be reused freely.

Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan,
National Institute of Genetics
Director, OKUBO Kousaku

See also following sites;

Patent, Intellectual Property and Priority

Nucleotide Sequence Data Included in Patent Applications

Nucleotide sequence data included in patent applications are transferred from Japan Patent Office (JPO) to DDBJ.
Similarly, DDBJ services also include the nucleotide data transferred from Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO)、the European Patent Office (EPO), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and the Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO).

An example of Sequence data included in patent applications: DL000001
Sequence data included in patent applications

Therefore, when the sequence is included in patent applications to JPO/KIPO/EPO/USPTO, you do not have to submit the sequence to DDBJ.

Notice: Sequence Data Submission Related to Patent Applications

Once released from DDBJ, the sequence data becomes part of the public domain, i.e. "official notice".
So, when you submit the sequence related to your patent application to DDBJ, set hold date as required.
See also Principle of “Hold-Until-Published” data release.

For the impact of DDBJ submission on the patent examination, you should directly confirm to the Patent Office that you applied.
DDBJ takes no responsibility for any property or priority issues of the released data.

Since we have to keep the original sequence data from JPO, "as is", if you need to modify or to correct the sequence, you have to submit the sequence to DDBJ newly. i.e. Both old and new ones will be finally open to the public.

If you are to submit sequence data related to your patent application, you should consult DDBJ before submission.

Patent Priority and Other Priority

Patent Priority

If you submit nucleotide sequence data to DDBJ, you get NO patent priority for the data.
DDBJ takes no responsibility for any property or priority issues for patenting.

If necessary, you should consult the patent office, before submitting your data to DDBJ.

Other Priority

Submitting your nucleotide sequence data to DDBJ, EMBL Bank or GenBank does not necessarily guarantee the priority of the data as shown in the following examples.



DDBJ Center adopts the disclaimers on the site policy of its parent organization, ROIS.

Data and Services

While DDBJ Center endeavors to keep its data correct, DDBJ Center makes no representations or warranties of any kind about the completeness, accuracy or reliability with respect to data provided from DDBJ Center. DDBJ Center also makes no legal liability or responsibility of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or that the use of the sequence data will not infringe any patent or other rights. Any receipt, reliance or use you place on such data is therefore strictly at your own risk.

See also Sequence data included in patent applications.

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